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Friday, July 15, 2011

Two Covenants in Galatians 4: Sarah & Hagar

By Maria Merola אריאל
© Copyright Double Portion Inheritance April 2009

Pictured here is the patriarch Abraham sending away Hagar and his son Yishma’el. This may have seemed cruel, but it was the will of YaHuWaH for Abraham to send Hagar & her son away. Why? It is because Hagar and her son symbolize an act of unbelief on the part of Abraham and his wife Sarah. You see, Abraham had been given a very special promise from YaHuWaH that he would bear a son by his barren wife Sarah in the fullness of time. But because of Abraham & Sarahs unbelief, Hagar and her son had to be sent into the wilderness as the “scapegoat. They were the innocent party and yet they had to bear the penalty for Abraham & Sarahs disobedience. Years later, Yitzchaq (Isaac) became the sacrificial goat” when Abraham offered him up on the altar. And thus we can see the typology of the Yowm Kippur “twin goats” in this story. Our Messiah later on fulfilled the pattern of the twin goats during his earthly ministry. He has also redeemed a remnant from the sons of Yishma’el (the Arab people) when they repent, and accept the blood atonement of Messiah Yahuwshuwa for their sins.

“The Abrahamic Covenant”

YaHuWaH made a blood covenant with Abraham and promised to bless him and his seed. Along with the promise of a son, YaHuWaH promised to give Abraham land as an inheritance that stretched from the Euphrates River all the way to the Nile River in Egypt. That was to be his territory. Abraham was also told that his descendants (which would come from this promised son), would be more numerous than the stars of heaven and the sands on the seashore. But Abraham and Sarah would have to wait twenty-five years before that promise would come to pass. But in the meantime, they grew impatient and they began to doubt that Abraham had heard the voice of YaHuWaH. In their haste and frustration, they gave in to doubt and unbelief, and as a result Sarah gave her handmaiden Hagar as a concubine to Abraham. She bore Abraham a son and the angel of YaHuWaH said that they should name him Yishma’el” which means “Elohiym will hear,” for YaHuWaH saw the affliction that Hagar had to endure because of Abraham & Sarahs unbelief (Genesis 16:11).

This was like an open rebuke from YaHuWaH to Abraham & Sarah. By this name, Yishma’el, YaHuWaH was telling them “I have heard  your prayers, now stop doubting!” Abraham and Sarah thought that they had to take matters into their own hands, by making the promise come to pass in a carnal and human way. They were not willing to wait on the promise for Sarah to give birth to a son. The name Yishma’el,was also like an open rebuke to YaHuWaH from Abraham and Sarah. It was as if they were saying to him “Look, you are going to hear us because we are going to make this promised son happen instead of waiting on you to fulfill your promise to us.” This was a sheer act of pride, defiance and impatience. When we take matters into our own hands, and act independently from the voice of YaHuWaH, we are committing high treason against our creator. We are in essence breaking the first commandment:

Shemoth (Exodus) 20:

2 I am YHWH your Elohiym, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

3 You shall have no other gods before me.

When we place our own desires and will above the desire and will of our Father, we assume the role of “master” and ruler of our own lives. In doing this, we are becoming a “god” unto ourselves and this is idolatry!

High Treason Involves Three Sins Pertaining to Body, Mind & Spirit

The first commandment in Exodus 20:3 is violated in three ways as seen below:

1st Yahuwchanon (John) 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.

The Pride of Life: Spiritual
The Lust of the Eyes: Mental (Intellectual & Emotional)
The Lust of the Flesh: Physical

Bereshiyth (Genesis) 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, (lust of the eyes) and a tree to be desired to make one wise (pride of life), she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat (lust of the flesh), and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

The sin of idolatry is broken down into three areas: mental (visual or imagination), physical (gratifying the body), spiritual (pride).

It is for this very reason that our Messiah had to overcome these three temptations for us when he was in the wilderness being tempted by the devil. In Matthew 4:1-10, Yahuwshuwa overcame three temptations on our behalf. Satan tempted him to turn stones into loaves of bread (the lust of the flesh). Satan also “showed him” all the kingdoms of this world offering to give them to him if he would only fall down and worship him (the lust of the eyes). And he tempted him to jump off of a steep pinnacle which would be taking matters into his own hands rather than waiting on YaHuWaH to deliver him (the pride of life).

Two Trees in the Garden

YaHuWaH Elohiym placed two trees in the Garden of Eden. One tree called “the tree of life” represents having faith and trust in YaHuWaH which manifests itself with the fruit of obedience and ultimately eternal life!  But the other tree called “the tree of knowledge of good & evil” represents doubt and unbelief which ultimately leads to disobedience and finally death!

Unbelief is the Seed that produces Idolatry!

Sin begins when we begin to doubt the word of YaHuWaH. When Eve doubted what YaHuWaH had told her and she began to believe a lie from Satan, that seed of “unbelief” grew up in her heart very quickly and she became an idol unto herself. YaHuWaH was immediately dethroned and she placed herself on the throne!

Bereshiyth (Genesis) 3:

1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which YHWH Elohiym had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, has Elohiym said, You shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, Elohiym has said, You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.

4 And the serpent said unto the woman, You shall not surely die:

5 For Elohiym does know that in the day you eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

It all began in the Garden of Eden. YaHuWaH had already told Adam & Hawwah (Eve) that they were not to eat from “the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” He had already forewarned them that if they ate of this tree, they would die. But the serpent came to Hawwah (Eve) and began sowing seeds of doubt into her mind about the goodness of Elohiym. He convinced her that Elohiym lied and that he did not have her best interests at heart. The serpent told her that if she would eat of the fruit of “the tree of knowledge of good and evil” that she would become wise just as the Creator and that she could become “as the Most High.” He said to her “you shall become as gods knowing good and evil” (Genesis 3:5). And thus she was made to believe that Elohiym was withholding something good from her.

This was the very same thing that happened to Abraham & Sarah. Abraham and Sarah began to doubt the promises that had been spoken to them. They began to feel as if Elohiym was holding out on them. And so Sarah (like Eve) made the suggestion that Abraham should take her slave Hagar and have a child by her, and thus Hagar’s child would be considered Sarah’s son since Hagar was Sarah’s property. You see, the serpent did to Abraham and Sarah the same as he had done to Adam & Eve. He planted seeds of doubt and unbelief in their minds and caused them to rebel and commit high treason against the Most High. But Adam & Eve’s act of unbelief had eternal consequences and so did Abraham and Sarah’s act of unbelief have eternal consequences. YaHuWaH had to drive them out of the Garden of Eden as a result of their sins. He had to protect them from eating from “the tree of life” which would cause them to live forever. If they had eaten of the tree of life, their sinful nature could never be destroyed and they would have remained in their rebellious fallen nature eternally without hope of redemption.

Bereshiyth (Genesis) 3:

7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.

8 And they heard the voice of YHWH Elohiym walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of YHWH Elohiym amongst the trees of the garden.

9 And YHWH Elohiym called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where are you?

10 And he said, I heard your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.

11 And he said, Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded you that you should not eat?

12 And the man said, The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.

13 And YHWH Elohiym said unto the woman, What is this that you have done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

14 And YHWH Elohiym said unto the serpent, Because you have done this, you are cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life:

“The Adamic Covenant”

After Adam & Eve sinned in the garden, YaHuWaH himself came down as their High Priest and made blood atonement and coats for them as a “covering.” I believe that this took place on Yowm Kippur since the Hebrew word for atonement (kippur) comes from the root word “kaphar” which means “to cover.” YaHuWaH spoke a prophecy over the woman. He told her that her “seed” (Messiah) would bruise the serpents head and that the serpent would bruise his heel (his inheritance). The word “heel” pertains to the inheritance, because when Yaaqob (Jacob) & Esau were in their mother’s womb, Jacob grabbed the heel of his brother Esau. Rebekah inquired of YaHuWaH when she realized that she had twins in her womb that were struggling. YaHuWaH told her that she had “two nations in her womb” and that one would be stronger than the other, and the older shall serve the younger. This of course was pertaining to the nation of Yisra’el and the Islamic nations who would later on struggle in their quest for the land promised to Abraham. When both of the boys grew up, Yaaqob (Jacob) grabbed his brother Esau’s inheritance away from him (Genesis 35:22-26). 

Bereshiyth (Genesis) 3:

15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; it shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.

16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; in sorrow you shall bring forth children; and your desire shall be to your husband, and he shall rule over you.

17 And unto Adam he said, Because you have hearkened unto the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying, You shall not eat of it: cursed is the ground for your sake; in sorrow shall you eat of it all the days of your life;

18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the herb of the field;

19 In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return unto the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and unto dust shall you return.

20 And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did YHWH Elohiym make coats of skins, and clothed them.

22 And YHWH Elohiym said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever:

23 Therefore YHWH Elohiym sent him forth from the Garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

Two Covenants: Bondage or Freedom?

Now we just read what happened to Adam & Eve. They were given a choice to eat of the tree of life and live forever or to eat of the tree of death and die. You will notice that YaHuWaH never told Adam & Eve that they could not eat from the tree of life. Before they sinned, they were eligible to eat from that tree but they chose the tree of death instead! Which tree put them into bondage? Was it the tree they ate from out of disobedience or the tree that they were permitted to eat from called “the tree of life?” You can see now where Paul is going in Galatians 4. The covenant that leads to bondage is a “false covenant” because it was entered into when Yisra’el had a disobedient heart. Most Christians inaccurately come to the conclusion that Paul was telling us that the Mosaic Law given at Mount Sinai is what causes bondage. But that is not what Paul was telling us at all:

Galatiym (Galatians) 4:

8 Howbeit then, when you knew not Elohiym, you did service unto them which by nature are no gods.

9 But now, after that you have known Elohiym, or rather are known of Elohiym, how turn you again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto you desire again to be in bondage?

10 You observe days, and months, and times, and years.

Maria’s Paraphrase:

When you did not know the Almighty one of Abraham, Yitzchaq (Isaac) & Ya’aqob (Jacob), and you were pagans, you served other deities by worshiping the created things in nature. Now that you know the Elohiym of Yisra’el, why are you turning again to the weak and beggarly elements of nature and the Zodiac signs? 

*Note: the four elements of the twelve Zodiac signs are: fire, water, air, & earth

Paul was referring to these pagan practices as “weak and beggarly elements.” He was asking them a rhetorical question: Why do you desire to be in bondage again to paganism? He goes on to describe the occult practices of sun-god worship: You observe the pagan sun-god holidays patterned after the Zodiac signs; you follow your astrological forecast, by observing times and years...We are commanded in Deuteronomy 18:10-11, not to observe the constellations for divination purposes, for Yah calls this an abomination. You see, Eve worshiped the created tree of knowledge of good and evil and she essentially worshiped herself (her own desires) but she did not worship YaHuWaH by obeying him. The Galatians were doing the same thing. They were worshiping the things in nature that are created rather than the Creator himself.  The Apostle Sha’uwl expressed this principle in Romans 1:25 Who changed the truth of Elohiym into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Awmane.

Sha’uwl (Paul) continues in Galatians 4:

11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.

21 Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, do you not hear the law?

Now here is where most Christians jump to conclusions and they think that Sha’uwl is against the Towrah (Mosaic Law). They assume that Sha’uwl is telling us that the Mosaic Law puts us under bondage. But what is he really telling us? Sha’uwl is speaking to these Galatians who have just come out of the bondage of man-made religion.

Judaism in those days had three major sects: Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes. The Essenes were into some-thing called “Gnosticism,” and they were enforcing man-made restrictions on new converts. Gnosticism is an extreme fear of anything that is of the flesh. They were so strict that they forbade marriage in many cases, and they even taught that eating meat from clean animals was a sin. They promoted vegetarianism and they enforced outward circumcision as a “means to being made righteous” when this was never the case under the Abrahamic & Mosaic Covenants. YaHuWaH never required outward circumcision as a means to righteousness! Abraham received circumcision as a “sign” of his covenant with YaHuWaH when he was 99 years old. But Abraham began walking with Yah when he was 75 years old, so he had a relationship with him for 24 year before being circumcised in his flesh. Abraham was already righteous by faith, and circumcision was something he did out of his love for YaHuWaH---not to earn righteousness. The Essenes had an unholy mixture of the commandments of YaHuWaH mingled with man-made traditions of pagan sun-god worship from Babylon. Today’s Christian Church does the same thing by mingling the Renewed Covenant in Messiah’s blood with false pagan holidays from Ancient Babylon.

Two Tables: YaHuWaH’s or the Devils?

The Apostle Sha’uwl warned us that we cannot mix these two covenants together:

1st Qorintiym (Corinthians) 10:20-21

20 But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to Elohiym: and I would not that you should have fellowship with devils.

21 You cannot drink the cup of YHWH, and the cup of devils: you cannot be partakers of the YHWH’s table, and of the table of devils.

22 Do we provoke YHWH to jealousy? Are we stronger than he?

What are these two different tables all about? The Passover “table laws” were established by our Creator, YaHuWaH in Exodus 12, and it accompanied the covenant that YaHuWaH made with Yisra’el. But Satan has tried to counterfeit this covenant with the religion of Baal worship. The “table of devils” is Jezebel’s table (1st Kings 18:19) where she (the Mother Harlot Church) offers up swine and unclean animals to filthy idols. This is accurately seen today in all of the pagan holidays and the Roman Catholic Mass. This is unholy mixture. The term “Christ-Mass” pertains to the Catholic Mass where our Messiah is supposedly being re-crucified over and over again in violation of Hebrews 6:6 where we are told that we put him to an “open shame” if we crucify him afresh!

Sha’uwl was asking the Galatians here “why do you desire to be under bondage to the pagan traditions of Gnosticism mixed with Judaism?” In today’s Christianity, Sha’uwl (Paul) would be asking Christians the same thing. He would be saying to them “why do you desire to be under bondage to Christ-Mass & Easter again when you can drink from the table of YaHuWaH at Passover?” Paul went on to give an allegory of two covenants.”

The first covenant given to Mosheh (Moses) in stone tablets was corruptible or breakable. It was a marriage covenant that was broken because of sin, not because the covenant or the commandments themselves were flawed. The first set of stone tablets was presented at Mount Sinai. The Jewish Encyclopedia says that the word “Sinai” is derived from the name of the Babylonian moon-god “Sin.” 

It is for this reason that the covenant presented at Mount Sinai “genders to bondage” (Galatians 4:24). It is because the children of Yisra’el were worshiping the golden calf on that mountain and it was only because of the people’s idolatrous hearts that the covenant gendered to bondage. But YaHuWaH’s marriage covenant itself was not flawed.

Yah wanted Yisra’el to hear his voice at Mount Sinai but they refused to hear his voice. And so YaHuWaH had to give them his instructions in stone tablets which were impersonal. He knew they were not going to be able to keep it this way.

But the second set of stone tablets given to Moses (when he went back up the second time), were not broken. Instead, they were deposited into an ark made of incorruptible wood (called shittim wood). And this wood never rots. This is symbolic of the Renewed Covenant which is made “incorruptible” when we receive a new born-again nature! 

When Moses presented the second set of tablets to Yisra’el and they were deposited into that ark (made of incorrup-tible wood), the sacrificial system was set up in the Tabernacle, symbolic of the cross and the blood atonement of Messiah. And this second set of tablets pre-figured the Renewed Covenant! The second set of tablets was not presented at Mount Sinai the second time around, but instead they were presented at “Mount Horeb,” which was a different location within the same mountain range. 

The word “Horeb” means “to kill, to destroy.” This word “Horeb” represents the sacrifice of Messiah on the cross where sin was destroyed for us. And so the second set of stone tablets presented to Yisra’el by Moses did not bring them into “bondage” as Sha’uwl described in Galatians 4. Sha’uwl was making a distinction between the covenant that was presented to them when they were in their unregenerate state, versus when they were in a place of repentance and humility. The second covenant presented to them “genders to freedom” and answers to Jerusalem. This is where the sacrificial system was set up in the Tabernacle, and this pictured and pre-figured our Messiah Yahuwshuwa who was the ultimate sacrifice for us.

Mosheh (Moses) presented this Renewed Covenant on the day of Shabuwoth (Pentecost) when the second set of stone tablets were deposited into the “Ark of the Covenant.” When Messiah came to renew this broken covenant, he presented the same laws to us, only instead of it being in stone, it was transferred from stone tablets and deposited into “fleshy tables of the heart” (2nd Corinthians 3:3). This is where YaHuWaH restored our ability to “hear his voice,” when the disciples spoke with new tongues and each man present could “hear” his own language being spoken. Yah restored what he had always intended to do at Mount Sinai by allowing us to hear these living oracles and the correct interpretation of his Towrah in our hearts by his own voice.

This Renewed Covenant was not a different set of laws any more than the second set of stone tablets given to Yisra’el through Moses was a different set of laws. The only difference was in the “form” that they were given to us in. The first covenant was corruptible or breakable (in stone tablets). Similarly, Yahuwshuwa’s mortal (corruptible) body was also destroyed on cross to symbolize that first set of stone tablets being destroyed. But the second set of stone tablets pre-figured the Renewed Covenant when Yahuwshuwa resurrected and put on immortality (incorruption). Yahuwshuwa is the living Towrah (the living word of Elohiym). He is the “Word who became flesh,” or in other words, he came in a mortal body that would be subject to death, just like that first set of stone tablets. 

But after his mortal body was destroyed, (just like Moses who broke the first set of tablets), he then put on immortality and that is when the Towrah (law) also became immortal or incorruptible! Similarly, Moses deposited the second set of tablets into an ark made of incorruptible wood that never decays! As a result of what Messiah has done for us, the Towrah (law) is all the more established in our hearts and minds because we are able to hear his voice.

So you see, the Apostle Sha’uwl would be contradicting himself if he was stating in Colossians 2 & Galatians 4, that we are no longer required to keep YaHuWaH’s Holy Days, because he tells us that the law of YaHuWaH is all the more established in our hearts because of faith:

Romiym (Romans) 3:31 Do we then make void the Towrah (law) through faith? Elohiym forbid: yes, we establish the Towrah (law).

Galatians 4 describes Two Covenants:

1.) The First Covenant (in stone tablets) was broken because of idol-atry with the golden calf at Mount Sinai. The word Sinai means Babylonian moon-god. This covenant genders to bondage because of their idolatry (not because Yah’s commandments puts us in bond-age). When Mosheh broke the tablets, this was a divorce decree! The divorce decree kept them in bondage to false pagan deities!

2.) The Second Covenant was presented at Mount Horeb and deposited into the ark made of incorruptible wood (symbolic of a born again nature of incorruptible seed) and those commandments were identical to the first set which were broken. 

What was different? The sacrificial system in the Tabernacle was set up and blood atonement was made for their idolatry. They were also in faith when the second covenant (stone tablets) were presented and this brought them freedom!

Galatiym (Galatians) 4:

22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond maid, the other by a free woman.

23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the free woman was by promise (born of the spirit).

24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which genders to bondage, which is Hagar.

25 For this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and answers to Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

26 But Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

So you see, both the first and second covenants were pre-figured in the book of Exodus! What puts men into bondage is not the Towrah---not the holy laws of YaHuWaH, but the sin of idolatry!

These Two Covenants are “types and shadows” that we can see in the TaNaKh (Old Testament) and also in the Briyth Chadashah (New Testament). From these types and shadows, we learn that Moses presented the Towrah in stone tablets to the children of Yisra’el. The first covenant at Mount Sinai was “broken” when Moses came down from the mountain and found the Yisra’elites worshiping the golden calf. This was the “covenant which genders to bondage.” Why did it “gender to bondage? It was because of their unbelief! It was not the commandments that put them into bondage, but their own lack of faith. They thought Moses was not coming back down from the mountain and so they lost faith in YaHuWaH. They began to doubt that YaHuWaH had lead them there in the wilderness, and they began to believe the lie of the enemy (just like Eve) when they believed that YaHuWaH brought them there to die. And so their unbelief caused them to sin and that is when they erected the golden calf.

When Moses came down the first time and found Yisra’el playing the harlot, he took the tables of stone (the written marriage agreement) and he “broke” then to symbolize a broken marriage covenant. This was a picture of the future Messiah who would later on, offer up his own body to be “broken” for us on the cross. Yahuwshuwa came to redeem us from this curse of a broken marriage covenant with YaHuWaH. This happened at Mount Sinai.

When Moses went up to Mount Sinai the second time, he returned with a new set of stone tablets. But this time, they were not broken, but instead, they were accompanied by the sacrificial system (symbolic of the cross) which was set up in the Tabernacle. This took place at Mount Horeb! The word “horeb” comes from another root word in Hebrew word “charab” which means “desolate, destroy, kill.”

When the Apostle Sha’uwl spoke of “two covenants,” he used Hagar the Egyptian woman as a symbol of “bondage” and the first covenant which was broken. But when Moses presented the second set of tablets at Mount Horeb, this symbolized Jerusalem, (where YaHuWaH has chosen to place his name and his Temple) and where the sacrifice of Messiah would ultimately take place for us.

The “Feast of Weeks” (Shabuwoth or Pentecost) is the self-same day wherein Mosheh presented the second set of stone tablets that were deposited into the 
“Ark of the Covenant.” This took place fifty days after “First Fruits,” which is when our Messiah would later on be resurrected! (Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:16, 1st Corinthians 15:20-23).

The second prophetic fulfillment of Shabuwoth/Pentecost is when the Ruwach ha
Qodesh (Holy Spirit) presented the Towrah in “fleshy tables of the heart” to the disciples fifty days after Yahuwshuwa Messiah’s “First Fruits” resurrection!

Sha’uwl (Paul) used “Mount Sinai” as an illustration of the covenant that brought Yisra’el into bondage, because it was there in that location where they broke the marriage agreement with the golden calf.

But the Renewed Covenant was foreshadowed in the second set of stone tablets which was presented at “Mount Horeb,” and we see prophetically how this ties into the Renewed Covenant that our Messiah came to ratify and renew!

Malakiy (Malachi) 4:

Remember you the Towrah (law) of Mosheh my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Yisra’el, with the statutes and judgments.

5 Behold, I will send you Eliyahuw (Elijah) the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of YHWH:

In these last days, before the Spirit of Eliyahuw (Elijah) can come and restore the “heart of the father” back to the hearts of the children of Yisra’el, we must first REMEMBER THE LAW OF MOSES AT HOREB, THE COVENANT THAT WAS DEPOSITED INTO THE ARK!

The covenant at Sinai was broken as it was presented to Yisra’el while they were in unbelief. 

The covenant at Horeb was given to Yisra’el after they had been humbled and chastised, and they were finally “in faith.” That is when the covenant was deposited into the Ark of the Covenant made of incorruptible wood that never decays. This is a prophetic picture of when we are born-again of “incorruptible seed” (1st Peter 1:23). Now, we can understand what Paul was illustrating to us:

The first covenant was given at Mount Sinai, and this is a picture of the “Old Testament” (2nd Corinthians 3:14).

The second covenant was given at Mount Horeb, and this is a picture of the 
“New Testament” (Matthew 26:28; 1st Corinthians 11:25; 2nd Corinthians 3:6; Hebrews 9:15).

These are the Two Covenants!

There were “two covenants” being illustrated in Galatians 4, which took place at Mount Sinai & Mount Horeb. And we can see now, why Paul used Hagar to symbolize the covenant that genders to bondage at Mount Sinai, and why he used Sarah to symbolize the covenant that genders to freedom at Mount Horeb.

If you want further documentation of these two locations that are within the same mountain range, the website below shows us that Sinai & Horeb were two different locations within the same mountain range. Sinai symbolizes idolatry, but Horeb symbolizes the cross where sin was killed and destroyed.

Horeb comes from this root word in Hebrew:

# 2717 charab khaw-rab’ or chareb {khaw-rabe’}; a primitive root; to parch (through drought) i.e. (by analogy,) to desolate, destroy, kill:-- decay, (be) desolate, destroy(-er), (be) dry (up), slay, surely, (lay, lie, make) waste.

The Jewish Encyclopedia tells us that there are two different locations representing two different marriage covenants:

The general opinion of modern scholars is that the name Sinai is derived from the name of the Babylonian moon-god Sin… According to one theory, Sinai and Horeb are the names of two eminences belonging to the same range; if this be so the range became prominent in the history of the Hebrews some time before the promulgation of the Law. When Moses led the flocks of his father-in-law to the desert and came “to the mountain of Elohiym, even to Horeb,” an angel appeared to him from a flaming bush, and then Elohiym Himself spoke to Moses, telling him that where he stood was holy ground, thus foreshadowing the great event that was to occur there. From that mountain Elohiym persuaded Moses to go to Pharaoh and deliver the Yisra’elites from his yoke.

And so you see Horeb is the place where Moses was called to deliver Yisra’el out of bondage. But Sinai is where they brought themselves back into bondage (after being saved of Egypt).

Mount Sinai = Bondage to Sin = Arabia, Hagar (without the sacrifice for sin).

Mount Horeb = Freedom from Sin = Jerusalem, Sarah (with the sacrifice for sin, the cross).

Two Covenants Seen in Two Wine-Skins

Yahuwshuwa used an illustration in all four gospels of “new wine” as a metaphor of the renewed marriage covenant being placed into a renewed heart---a born-again heart (a new wine-skin). A heart that has been regenerated (born-again) is able to contain the new wine (the renewed marriage covenant). But somebody whose heart is still unregenerate (with the old sinful nature) is like one who is an “old wine skin,” and that kind of heart is unable to be faithful to the marriage covenant. This is why he gave the following illustration:

Mattithyahuw (Matthew) 9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runs out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.

Yisra’el in her unregenerate state is accurately represented by the “old wine-skin” (the old sinful nature). The covenant at Sinai was not flawed just like the wine was not flawed. The wine represents the marriage covenant. But because Yisra’el was like the “old wine-skin” (having a weak sinful nature), she was unable to be faithful to the marriage covenant. But through Messiah, Yisra’el is given the chance to become like a “new wine-skin” (able to hold the new wine). This means that she is now able the original marriage covenant offered to her on Mount Sinai!  

Pictured here are two wine-skins made out of leather. These are usually made from sheep-skin and they are like a canteen used to store wine back in biblical times. The new wine-skin is like a newly born sheep (child-like and humble). But the old wine-skin is like an old goat (stubborn and stiff-necked). Hence, the meaning of the parable about the sheep and the goats:

Mattithyahuw (Matthew) 25:

32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divides his sheep from the goats:

33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.

In the final analysis, we can see that Sha’uwl’s allegory about Hagar, Sinai & bondage represents the nation of Yisra’el in their unregenerate state (old goats and old wine-skins). 

Yisra’el entered into a marriage covenant, but she was still like that “old wine-skin,” unable to hold the “new wine.” 

The “new wine” is a metaphor for the marriage covenant and that marriage covenant was presented by the voice of YaHuWaH himself at Mount Sinai. It only became a covenant that genders to bondage because of Yisra’el’s disobedient heart. 

When Yisra’el was full of doubt and unbelief, this lead to idolatry and the ultimate sin of worshiping the golden calf. When Abraham & Sarah began to doubt the promise, their lack of faith and their unbelief led to an act of idolatry. They set themselves up as their own “mighty one” and as a result, they made an “Yishma’el.” Yishma’el is a product of unbelief. Like Abraham & Sarah in their unregenerate state, Yisra’el produced a covenant with their maker that resulted in idolatry and bondage. 

But Paul’s allegory about Sarah, Jerusalem & freedom represents a covenant that is obeyed by a bride with a renewed heart (a new wine-skin). Abraham & Sarah’s faith was renewed as they grew in their relationship with YaHuWaH. When they recovered in their faith, YaHuWaH gave them the promised seed! 

Renewed Covenant Yisra’el is a bride whose heart has been born anew---regenerated! She is like “the new wine-skin when she receives a new nature “born again of incorruptible seed.” She received the wine of the Renewed Covenant as illustrated at the wedding at Cana in the 2nd chapter of Yahuwchanon (John 2:1).  

On the day of Shabuwoth (Pentecost), what did Renewed Yisra’el receive? She received the very same commandments that Moses presented at Sinai, only now it was written in her heart! Instead of the commandments being written in stone, the very same commandments were written in “fleshy tables of the heart.” (2nd Corinthians 3:3). 

In other words, the “new wine-skin  is “born-again Yisra’el.” She was dead (like the old wine-skin), but out of the grave she will come---like dead men’s bones at the resurrection (Ezekiel 37:4-12). Renewed Covenant Yisra’el was given the “first-fruitsof her redemption on the Day of Shabuwoth (Pentecost):

Romiym (Romans) 8:23 And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body.

But she will be like a new wine-skin with new flesh on her bones and the blood of Messiah flowing through her veins:

Yechezqel (Ezekiel) 37:

3 And he said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live? And I answered, O YHWH Elohiym, you know.

4 Again he said unto me, Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O you dry bones, hear the word of YHWH.

5 Thus says YHWH Elohiym unto these bones; Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and you shall live:

6 And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live; and you shall know that I am YHWH.

7 So I prophesied as I was commanded: and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone.

8 And when I beheld, lo, the sinews and the flesh came up upon them, and the skin covered them above: but there was no breath in them.

9 Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus says YHWH Elohiym; Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.

10 So I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great army.

11 Then he said unto me, Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Yisra’el: behold, they say, Our bones are dried, and our hope is lost: we are cut off for our parts.

12 Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus says YHWH Elohiym; Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Yisra’el.

13 And you shall know that I am YHWH, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves,

14 And shall put my spirit in you, and you shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall you know that I YHWH have spoken it, and performed it, says YHWH.

It all began in the Garden of Eden with two trees. One tree symbolized faith and obedience leading to life, and the other tree symbolized doubt and unbelief leading to death. There were also two sons born to Abraham & Sarah. Yishmael was a product of their unbelief and disobedience, but Yitzchaq (Isaac) was a product of their obedience and faith. On Mount Sinai, Yisra’el was presented with two different covenants. The first one gendered to bondage because they were still in doubt and unbelief. But the second covenant gendered to freedom because they had been reproved and they were in faith with the second set of stone tablets. Yahuwshuwa compares these two types of people (unregenerate & born-again) to either an “old wine-skin” or a “new wine-skin.”

Two Kinds of Law: Life or Death? Marriage or Divorce?

In Romans 8, the Apostle Sha’uwl illustrated two different types of law:

Romiym (Romans) 8:

1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Mashiyach Yahuwshuwa, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

2 For the Towrah (law) of the Spirit of life in Mashiyach Yahuwshuwa has made me free from the Towrah (law) of sin and death.

3 For what the Towrah (law in stone) could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, Elohiym sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

4 That the righteousness of the Towrah (law) might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

*The Law of the Spirit of Life: Towrah (Mosaic Law) now deposited into the heart by the Holy Spirit. This is called a “ketuwbah” which means “a written marriage contract.”

    *The Law of Sin & Death: Rebellion against Towrah (the marriage covenant). This is called “a certificate of divorce.” (Deuteronomy 24).

What brought freedom? The Mosaic Law given by the Ruwach (Spirit) is called “the law of the spirit of life,” and it results in an everlasting marriage covenant. But “the law of sin and death” was the disobedient nature of an unregenerate heart that caused Yisra’el to be in opposition to the Towrah (law). The law of sin and death caused YaHuWaH to divorce Yisra’el (Jeremiah 3:8). The law in stone tablets was “weak” through the flesh (the sinful nature) and it was unable to save Yisra’el until they received a new nature. Once a new nature was given, now the Towrah (Mosaic Law) is what frees us from the law of sin and death:

Romiym (Romans) 8:2 For the Towrah (law) of the Spirit of life in Mashiyach Yahuwshuwa has made me free from the Towrah (law) of sin and death.

So you see, beloved, Paul was illustrating to us that it boils down to two conditions of the human heart. The Towrah given to an un-renewed heart leads to death. But the Towrah given to a renewed heart leads to life!


  1. I'd say,"Wow" is right.That was a helluva eye opener for me.It took me a couple of days to read this but it was worth it!